Standardisation of spirometry. IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant variations between the two organizations in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Conclusions: Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were recognized in 43.7% of the individuals in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the medical severity of asthma. is definitely a gram-positive bacterium that can KLHL11 antibody colonize the human being skin and respiratory tract. Colonization with . might or is probably not associated with pathological processes. . generates several toxins related to its colonization ability and pathogenicity. The most important are toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, and SEI, the activities of which include superantigen activity, pyrogenicity, and potentiation of lethality of additional toxins. 1 – 3 The superantigen activity of staphylococcal toxins consists of direct activation of class II MHC receptors and T cells, individually of antigen demonstration by antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and activity of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. This mechanism is related to the worsening of sensitive diseases from the production of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, as well Delta-Tocopherol as by a direct effect on cells mast cells, leading to their degranulation. 1 – 3 In asthma individuals, staphylococcal toxins also act as superantigens, stimulating CD4 T lymphocyte proliferation and activity and leading to an increased production of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, causing an allergic-type reaction by biding to mast cells in the respiratory tract. This reaction results in the release of mediators such as histamine, kinins, platelet-activating element, and arachidonic acid metabolites (prostaglandins and leukotrienes), as well as of chemokines, eliciting immediate and past due inflammatory reactions (from the recruitment and activation of neutrophils and eosinophils) and culminating in asthma worsening. 1 – 3 Staphylococcal superantigens have been shown to perform functions Delta-Tocopherol in atopic dermatitis, rhinosinusitis, and asthma, becoming correlated with their severity. 4 – 8 With regard to asthma, Kowalski et al. found IgE antibodies to SEA, SEC, and TSST in 89.7% of 237 asthma individuals (mean levels of 1.096 3.25 kU/L); although there was no significant difference between those with severe asthma and those with non-severe asthma in terms of the prevalence of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies (81.4% vs. Delta-Tocopherol 69.2%), mean levels were higher in the past than in the second option (1.65 3.25 kU/L vs. 0.54 0.72 kU/L). 9 In another study (N = 210), the same authors acquired similar results, the prevalence of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies becoming 76.1% in individuals with severe asthma and 71.1% in those with non-severe asthma, mean levels being three times higher in the former than in the second option. 10 Bachert et al. found a significant increase in staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies in individuals with severe asthma when compared with those with slight asthma and settings (N = 70). 11 In a more recent study (N = 387), the same group of authors found out a significant increase in staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies in individuals with severe uncontrolled asthma (59.6%) when compared with those with controlled asthma (40.8%) and settings (13.0%). Large levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies have been found Delta-Tocopherol to be a risk element for asthma (OR = 7.6) and severe asthma (OR = 11.09). 12 In Latin America, there.