Ms. values 0.05 GPI-1046 were considered statistically significant. Study Approval All animal experiments were approved by the Experimental Animal Ethics Committee of Peking University First Hospital (Beijing, China). Results Peptide Alignment of Geneious version The amino acid sequences of was reduced in both early-treatment groups. IL-17 expression was also reduced in the 30 mg/kg early-treatment group. However, the expression of IL-10 was enhanced in the 10 mg/kg early-treatment group and later-treatment group. There was no difference among the groups for IL-4 (Figure 8G). Foxp3+ cells were increased in kidney tissues of m-P14 intervention groups compared with the two mechanisms.25 One is through interfering antigen presentation process by competitive binding to the groove of MHC molecules, which blocks the presentation of pathogenic self-antigens on the MHC molecules. The other is to apply proper substitutions of TCR contact residues of the original pathogenic peptide to alter the subsequent T cell responses, including inhibiting antigen-specific T cell activation, increasing the percentage of protective Th2 cells and inducing regulatory T cells to suppress the inflammatory responses.24,26C32 In this study, m-P14 showed nearly the same binding affinity as might prevent the pathogenic peptide secretion of splenocytes induced by and IL-17 and less local inflammatory cells infiltration in the kidneys of m-P14 intervention groups. Th17 cells play critical proinflammatory roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune kidney diseases.34C37 A previous study GPI-1046 showed that a lower level of IL-17 was associated with ameliorated kidney damage of experimental GN.35 The absence of IL23/Th17 axis lowered the autoimmune responses and displayed a protective pattern for proliferative and crescentic GN.34,36 We speculated that the modified peptide m-P14 may affect TCR contact residues by the altered affinity and disrupt the pathways for Th17 cells differentiation.33 Moreover, we found that the ratio of Treg/Th17 cells was elevated in m-P14 immunized rats in a dose-dependent manner. Increased expression of IL-10 and more Foxp3+ cells were found in the kidneys of m-P14 intervention groups, implying that Treg cells may be upregulated. A detailed description on T cell subsets in the kidneys is necessary in the future. Previous studies have indicated that certain epitopes like Tregitopes could induce Treg cell activation when coincubated with PBMCs.38 Endogenous Treg cells GPI-1046 were proved by Ooi em et al. /em 39 to suppress inflammation by infiltrating the kidney in the later phase of an EAG mice model. Thus, the higher ratio of Treg cells induced by m-P14 may also contribute to its therapeutic effects. Besides the switch in cellular immunity, we also noticed that the level of antibodies toward em /em 3-P14 was decreased significantly in early-treatment organizations, and epitope distributing from linear em /em 3-P14 to conformational em /em 3NC1 was impeded in the later-treatment group. One possible explanation for these humoral immunity alterations is definitely that m-P14 may inactivate the em /em 3-P14Cspecific T cells and create less signals to stimulate B cells for anti-P14 antibody production.40 Another course of action may be attributed to the competitive inhibition of m-P14 to the binding between em /em 3-P14 and its circulating antibodies. The inhibition capacity of m-P14 was actually stronger than the immunogen em /em 3-P14 itself. Thus, m-P14 could competitively block the existing pathogenic anti-P14 antibodies directly, arrest the antibody deposit on GBM, and restrain kidney damage. In LSM16 conclusion, we designed a altered peptide derived from the nephrogenic T cell epitope on em /em 3NC1 by one single amino acid substitution from em /em 1NC1, which could arrest and attenuate the GPI-1046 kidney accidental injuries of anti-GBM GN in rat model, through mechanism on cellular and humoral immunity rules. This approach confirmed the feasibility of modulating T cell activation for the treatment of Goodpasture disease and may shed fresh insights on the treatment of autoimmune kidney diseases in long term. Disclosures None. Funding This work is definitely financially supported by grants from Natural Technology Basis of China to the Advancement Study Group (81621092), the Exceptional Small Scholar (81622009), and the general programs (81870482, 81870486). Supplementary Material Supplemental Data: Click here to view.(1.3M, pdf) Acknowledgments Dr. Cui and Prof. Zhao designed the study. Ms. Shi and Dr. Gu carried out experiments. Ms. Wang recognized the biochemical signals for all the samples. Ms. Shi analyzed the data, completed the numbers, and drafted the paper. Dr. Jia, Dr. Cui, and Prof. Zhao revised the paper. The final version of the manuscript was authorized by all authors. The technical support received from GPI-1046 Lover Zhang, Lei Qu, Guo-sheng Yang, and Ying-hong Tao was greatly appreciated. Footnotes X.-y.J. and Z.C. contributed equally to this work. Published on-line ahead of printing. Publication date available at Supplemental Material This article contains the following supplemental material on-line at